Accelerate the cultivation of new professional farmers to solve the problem of "who will plant land"

[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News] The "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" is the decisive period for building a well-off society in an all-round way and is also a crucial period for accelerating agricultural modernization. At present, the question of "who will plant the land" is realistically placed before us. Only by accelerating the cultivation of new professional peasants and forming a high-quality agricultural production and operation team as soon as possible can we shoulder the historical responsibility of modern agricultural construction.
Accelerate the cultivation of new professional farmers to solve the problem of "who will plant land"
First, to promote the modernization of agriculture, it is necessary to accelerate the cultivation of new professional farmers.
Correctly understanding and handling farmers' problems has always been a strategic issue. As a large social group, peasants are not only the foundation of China's agricultural modernization, but also the future of a new socialist countryside. As the main body of developing modern agriculture, the professionalization of peasants is an important indicator of agricultural modernization. The "large-scale management of new agricultural peasants with new occupational peasants" is the basic direction of modern agricultural development in China. At this stage, improving the scientific quality of farmers and cultivating new professional farmers is an inevitable choice to promote the development of modern agriculture and a key measure to solve the problem of "who will plant land."
At the Central Rural Work Conference held at the end of 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly expounded the issue of “Who will plant the land”, emphasizing the need to focus on attracting young people to farm and cultivate professional farmers, and establish special policy mechanisms to build a professional peasant team. In April 2016, at the rural reform symposium held in Xiaogang Village, Anhui Province, General Secretary Xi Jinping once again stressed the need to speed up the construction of a professional peasant team and form a team of high-quality agricultural production and management. Since 2012, five consecutive Central No. 1 documents have made major arrangements for cultivating new professional farmers. In particular, the 2016 Central Document No. 1 clearly stated that professional farmers should be trained to become the leading force in building modern agriculture. The important exposition of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the deployment arrangements of the No. 1 Document of the Central Committee fully demonstrate the strategic position of cultivating new professional peasants in the development of “agriculture, rural areas and farmers”. Governments at all levels must persist in the cultivation of new professional peasants, fundamentally Solve the problem of "who will plant the land."
From the perspective of modernization as a whole, cultivating new professional peasants is a strategic issue that concerns the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. "A well-off society is not a well-off, the key is to look at the fellow villagers." The key points and difficulties in building a well-off society in an all-round way are peasants, and the arduous and arduous task is in the countryside. "Farmers must be well-off, and their incomes must rise." Although the income of farmers in China has continued to grow in recent years, the relative gap between urban and rural incomes has narrowed, but the gap has continued to widen. In 2015, the per capita disposable income of urban residents was 31,195 yuan, and the rural residents were only 11,422 yuan. The difference between the two was nearly 20,000 yuan, and the level of social security of farmers was low, and public services were less. To a large extent, farmers were still "identity." The title does not become a decent profession. At present, it is urgent to speed up the cultivation of new-type professional farmers, and more and more farmers will become the backbone of large professional households, family farmers, cooperative leaders and agricultural enterprises, and promote the efficiency of agricultural operations by vigorously promoting various forms of moderate scale operations. Make agriculture a rushing industry and make peasants a decent profession.
From a holistic perspective, the current quality problems of agricultural laborers in China are outstanding, and it is difficult to adapt to the needs of modern agricultural development and become a bottleneck restricting the "synchronization of the four modernizations". First, the number is shrinking. Statistics show that the number of migrant workers transferred from agricultural production in China reached 277 million, and is still growing at a rate of several million per year. Farmers, especially young and middle-aged farmers, have sharply decreased. The second is structural imbalance. The number of peasants staying in rural areas is mostly old and women. The average age of farmers in Zhejiang and Jiangsu has reached 57 years. Third, the quality is worrying. Among the farmers, the primary and junior high school education accounted for more than 70%, and the proportion of farmers with basic scientific quality was only 1.7%, far below the national average of 6.2%. The fourth is the lack of successors. Most of the new generation of rural labor force chooses to “jump the farmer’s door”, and the farmers have become the “low-lying zone” for the quality of the people. Due to the quality of the labor force, it is difficult to use agricultural facilities and equipment, and high-level agricultural scientific and technological achievements are difficult to transform.
The Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee and the "13th Five-Year Plan" have clearly stated that by 2020, agricultural modernization will achieve significant progress. China's agriculture is in a critical period of shifting mode and structure. The promotion of agricultural modernization faces severe challenges and the task is very arduous. We must increase the cultivation of new professional farmers, actively promote the professionalization of farmers, accelerate the construction of a high-quality modern agricultural production and operation team, and provide a solid human resources foundation and guarantee for agricultural modernization.
Second, the initial success of the cultivation of new professional farmers in China
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have accelerated the cultivation of new-type professional peasants as a strategic task in response to the needs of agricultural modernization, and their effectiveness has been evident in promoting modern agricultural construction. In accordance with the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and in light of the actual improvement of the cultivation system, the strengthening of the system construction, and the increase of funding, the local governments have focused on improving the overall framework system for the cultivation of new professional farmers, and a large number of new professional farmers have emerged.
The pattern of the cultivation of new professional farmers has basically taken shape. In 2012, China launched a pilot project for the cultivation of new professional farmers in the country. In 2014, it launched the implementation of a new type of professional farmer cultivation project. In 2015, it launched a modern youth farmer training program. Under the guidance of the central policy guidelines and the national pilot demonstration, the party and government governments at all levels attach great importance to the cultivation of new professional farmers, classify the cultivation of new professional farmers as the key work of agriculture and rural areas, continuously increase financial input, implement support policies, and refine work requirements. Promote the pilot demonstration in depth. At present, four provinces, 21 cities and 487 counties across the country have established a relatively complete model training system for new types of professional farmers, which has initially formed a pattern of new professional farmers' cultivation work driven by the government, departmental linkage, industry-driven, and peasant initiative.

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